Valve sourcing goes international

Across many types of merchandise in a selection of industries, the apply of combining assorted components from numerous assets all over the world is the rule, not the exception. Should this be a concern for a management valve user? For instance, when an finish consumer discovers that several components are being made in China (Figure 1), should the person worry in regards to the quality?
When coping with a serious valve vendor, the reply is “no.” There shouldn’t be any room for doubt when the seller has multiple checks and balances in place specializing in product quality to ensure control valves function as designed, need minimal maintenance, carry out safely and operate within environmental laws.
Yet, regardless of such efforts by the seller, a management valve person could have questions on global sourcing and the nation of origin. This article discusses how one main control valve vendor ensures product quality. Many other management valve distributors comply with the identical or comparable procedures.
Quality specification brings global assurance
Emerson enforces a comprehensive quality specification for its Fisher management valves that must be met by suppliers of pressure-containing and structural steel castings. The high quality specification includes greater than a dozen requirements that apply to the next areas:
Supplier qualification
Welding procedures
Marking inspection and testing
Tryout and pattern castings
Production castings
Certification of compliance
Supplier qualification — Suppliers undergo a rigorous qualification course of. The process completely investigates a potential supplier’s capability to meet materials specs and applicable worldwide codes and standards — in addition to specific requirements associated to component manufacture. In the case of castings, a foundry is considered “qualified” when it passes a critical evaluation by Fisher’s engineers.
The foundry must demonstrate a document of qualification by a third-party inspection company and conform to varied standards, corresponding to ISO 9001:2000, ASME, A2LA, PED and others. It should move a evaluate of its quality program in addition to on-site audits of the foundry’s processes and procedures corresponding to welding, warmth therapy and non-destructive examination. Additional proof of performance is decided by analysis of tryout castings to confirm specifications are met.
เพรสเชอร์เกจลม — Welding is used through the manufacturing and upgrading of castings, similar to when radiographic examination is required. Welding requirements state that procedures and welder qualifications should meet ASME Section IX (or EN ISO 15614-1 and ISO 9606-1) qualification requirements. Similarly, every lot of weld filler should adjust to ASME/AWS chemical analysis specs. In Europe, compliance must be to EN499. Weld filler should have actual chemistry.
Marking inspection and testing — Valve body castings have markings (Figure 2) that identify the foundry that poured the casting and that indicate the heat code. Material identification is also usually shown on the body casting, such as CC, CF8M, CN7M and others.
Casting checks — Emerson technicians conduct both visible inspections and mechanical checks on pressure-retaining castings.
As-cast exterior and internal surfaces are inspected visually for unacceptable irregularities, together with hot tears and cracks, shrink, sand inclusions, veining and rat tails. Mechanical testing entails a hydrostatic stress test to substantiate the leak tightness of a management valve’s pressure-retaining parts, together with the body and bonnet castings. The test process entails a fixture that closes off cavities that would be pressurized in service and then subjects the component to the hydrostatic shell check stress acceptable for the valve body material and class.
ASME B16.34 units out the hydrostatic test strain to use for steel and alloy valves. It’s calculated by multiplying the working stress by 1.5 and rounding to the next greater 25 psig increment. Any visually detectable weeping or leaking through the strain boundary walls which might be a part of the valve assembly is a compulsory trigger for rejection (Figure 3).
Compliance with these specifications should be ensured, in addition to with other requirements regarding materials.
Figure 2. Markings determine the foundry and materials of the valve physique. These management valve bodies were cast at an Emerson-approved foundry in China.
Meeting materials necessities
Valve casting integrity and quality begins with specifications that call not only for premium supplies, but additionally for the supplies that work best within the supposed purposes. These application necessities include strength and ductility in addition to resistance to certain components, including the makeup of the managed fluid, working temperature and move velocity.
For instance, chemical composition must be controlled precisely to attain an alloy’s supposed efficiency degree. Carbon steel castings for valves supposed to be used in oil and gasoline purposes should meet NACE SP0472 recommendations that chemical composition be controlled to less than 0.43% carbon equivalency. The lower carbon content material improves weldability and reduces the potential for stress cracking by hydrogen sulfide typically found in oil and gasoline production and processing purposes.
Another instance of supplies tied to a selected utility embody those for upstream oil and gasoline production. Many of these functions happen within the arctic regions of Russia and Canada. For this service, castings are ASME SA 352 Grade LCC, whereas forgings must meet ASME SA 350 Grade LF2.
Many merchandise with global use now adjust to twin materials specifications to satisfy ASME and European requirements. For instance, steel castings are specified and licensed to both ASME SA216 Grade WCC and EN 10213 Grade 1.0619. Emerson usually provides its own stringent necessities similar to the warmth treating of excessive nickel alloys, more demanding chemical composition or special welding procedures.
In the past, Emerson has supplemented standard ASTM and ASME specifications to achieve the enhanced corrosion-resistance ranges and high temperature capabilities supplied by high-nickel alloys. This is now achieved by the new ASTM specification A990, which addresses both materials composition and high quality.
Figure 3. Pressure-retaining components of a valve are subjected to hydrostatic testing to judge the parts’ integrity. Visible leakage or seepage through a casting means automatic rejection.
Qualifying เกจวัดแรงดันแก๊สco2
As a half of a prospective foundry’s qualification, Emerson inspects and exams Fisher valve castings. Non-destructive testing radiography is used as a monitoring tool. ASTM A990 Class C requires radiography of the primary casting of every sample. The acceptance criterion is Level three for classes A, B and C. For classes D via G, no cracking, scorching tears or inserts are allowed as specified in ASTM A990.
High-nickel alloy castings present improved performance in corrosive providers and elevated temperatures. However, if high-nickel castings are improperly ready, they can pose main issues, including poor integrity, poor weldability and lower-than-expected corrosion resistance. A systematic foundry qualification process can be followed to keep away from these casting difficulties.
The foundry should forged a 1-inch thick high-nickel check plate (Figure 4) that meets ASTM Material Specification A990. It’s troublesome to forged due to the distinction in cross-section between the bottom of the weld cavity (in the center) and the general 1-inch thickness of the plate. The cavity of the poured plate is then full of a matching composition weld material. The welder and process for this step should meet the requirements outlined in Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Test bars (3/8-inch thick) are cut from the plate and bent over a 1½-inch mandrel per ASTM A990 right into a U-shape.
The bars are examined intently for cracking along the weld heat-affected zone, casting grain boundaries or dendrite boundaries. Failure to meet quality standards will outcome in the disqualification of the foundry from further consideration. Casting patterns have to be devoted solely to high-nickel alloy service. Use of carbon steel or a stainless-steel sample is unacceptable due to variations in solidification properties.
Shrinkage charges for gates, risers and different equipment can vary considerably. Once the dedicated sample tools for each of those elements has been secured, try-out castings are poured for every pattern-alloy mixture. The castings are then radiographed.
The intent is to reveal any inherent casting defects — such as shrinkage — that must be eliminated by modifying the pattern rigging.
Figure four. In a foundry analysis, a casting is full of weld filler, then sliced to yield a bar for bend testing.
A qualified foundry
Emerson has used a Chinese foundry (Figure 5) to solid Fisher valve bodies for greater than a decade. After an exploratory go to by procurement and manufacturing specialists, adopted by an extensive qualification course of, the foundry was permitted and has been delivering high-quality valve physique and bonnet castings to Fisher valve manufacturing sites.
To assist ensure the standard of the castings it produces, the Chinese foundry has carried out worldwide requirements and has obtained certifications for German TUV and CE, Norway DNV, German Lloyd’s and American ABS, and has handed international quality system certifications of ISO 9001 and QS -9000.
The foundry has been awarded Gold Medals thrice consecutively within the Beijing International Casting, Forging and Industrial Boiler Expo. It has twice acquired an Excellent Supplier award from Emerson.
Figure 5. This Chinese foundry meets all specifications for casting valve bodies.
Summary
Control valve customers may be involved after they learn certain valve elements usually are not made in the U.S. or Europe, however elsewhere. Perhaps their concern stems from expertise with other inferior merchandise, similar to home equipment, clothes or electronics made in these countries and offered on-line. But if the valve parts are being supplied to a major control valve vendor that has gone to nice lengths to qualify the foundry or supplier, then customers may be assured the valves meet all specifications.
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